Friday, May 22, 2020

Business Plan Example - 1258 Words

Location, place, area is the old adage about picking realistate for your organisation. High website traffic areas, areas that are quickly ease of access for customers, as well as structures that best fit the company are a few things local business owner consider. These exact same insights apply to a businesss website. The place of your internet site, its style, and its marketing all contribute to its success. Higher online web traffic, website usability, as well as having relatable web content all lead to higher ROI as well as greater conversion prices. The Chicago Website Design SEO firm deals with you to make your web site skyrocket. San Diego, California SEO companies implement strategies in conformity with Googles on the internet†¦show more content†¦SEO is a procedure that calls for time to work. Our customers are not just more probable to obtain far better outcomes, yet likewise to preserve those results beyond the initial working period. The Chicago Website Design SEO Company asks brand-new customers to secure these things when signing onto our expert SEO services: 1. An authorized form of settlement on file 2. Accessibility to any existing company website 3. A summary of your product or services 4. Your address and also contact info in order to get your progress reports What You Get From San Diego SEO Services When we have an authorized agreement, we will certainly collaborate with you to get the most effective results. We ask customers to stay on for 6 months as the time framework is most helpful for enhancing your roi (ROI). Our SEO company will send you month-to-month outcomes showing your online standing and also success of your internet site on the top search engines including Yahoo! as well as Bing. Upon getting to the end of your 6 month dedication you could resign to continue our solutions. While quiting SEO services could not alter your site success instantly it is not always our referral. SEO in San Diego is a procedure. The search-ability or rank of every internet site is likely to transform over time. The Chicago Website Design SEO Company is different from various other San Diego SEO specialists. While some SEO firms supply limiting pre paid plans, our firm is committed to your success. We will notShow MoreRelatedBusiness Plan for Wash Dry and Guard Detailing Essay examples15667 Words   |  63 PagesBUSINESS PLAN FOR WASH DRY AND GUARD DETAILING Bachelors Capstone Final Project Elizabeth M. Towler MT499-01 Professor Ernest Norris Table of Contents Section 1: Executive Summary (Business Description) 2 Section 2: Code of Conduct 7 Section 3: Marketing Plan (Strategy and SWOT) 11 Section 4: Operations 16 Section 5: Finance 22 Section 6: Cash Flow Analysis 28 Section 7: InformationRead MoreBusiness Plan Example3318 Words   |  14 PagesGenius In Training Inc. Business Plan June 28, 2013 Table of Contents Description Page Executive Summary 2 Company Mission, Vision, Value Statement 4 Opportunity Analysis 5 Marketing Plan 7 Operations and Management 9 Financial Statements 12 Estimate and Request for Funding 15 Exit Strategy 16 Genius In Training Inc. Executive Summary Syndee Howgate CEO of Genius In TrainingRead MoreExample Of A Business Plan801 Words   |  4 Pagesneeds.  We designed this product to be insulative, safe, and to expand to fit any drink to fulfill this aspect of our companies obligations. It is crucial to us that we manage and organize our business properly, that way our product can effectively satisfy our customers. Managing the Business Day-to- Day The business will be run under a limited liability partnership, the partners will include; Rebecca Dent, Daniel Frisk, Rylee Kane, Louis Duncan, Leah Searfoss, and Eric Shellock. Our team of consultantsRead MoreBusiness Plan Essay examples606 Words   |  3 Pagestype of business you have created including: a. the product or service, and general staffing plan. Provide a rationale for your plan. b. The form of your business and the benefits it offers your particular business, c. A chart of accounts specific to your business, including a rationale as to the selection of each account. (Note: The chart of accounts is a blueprint of your business for the lender/investor. It should report the expected resources that you will consume in your business (assets)Read MoreBusiness Plan-Example Essay1322 Words   |  6 PagesForecast 7. Management Summary 6 8. Financial Plan 6 8.1 Important Assumptions 8.2 Break-even Analysis 8.3 Projected Profit Loss 9. Summary 7 1. Executive Summary Rush Bakers Restaurant (RBR) is a start-up bakery retail establishment located in Nittambuwa, western province of Srilanka. RBR expects to catch the interest of a regular loyal customer base with its broad variety of food and bakery products. The restaurant plans to build a strong market position in the town ofRead MoreAn example of a business plan for a hypothetical company3310 Words   |  14 PagesBusiness Plan: Progressive Consulting What follows is a complete business plan for a hypothetical company. Please copy or save to your disk and use as an example in developing your own business plan. If you would like to read a series of articles jump to Web Marketing . For additional business aids click on The Practical Tools of Consulting 1. 0 Executive Summary Progressive Consulting will be formed as a consulting company specializing in marketing of high technology products in internationalRead MoreGun Security Business Plan Example1010 Words   |  5 PagesWithin my upcoming future, I plan to start a Limited Liability Corporation (LLC) with my brother-in-law, that is an outdoor shooting range called the Top Shots Gun Range. The company will have a small retail shop as you enter the building. This will allow you to buy the products you need before entering the shooting range. The store would sell the basic needs from targets, ammo, and hearing protection. We also will be selling shirts and hats with the ranges logo on it. The shooting range is setupRead MoreSuccess And Failure Of Im Management1385 Words   |  6 Pagesstrategy, even powerful leadership can be worthless. It can also be defined as the long term planning for any business. An IM leader should make sure to have it in place. 2. Vibrant firm Culture - A firm s culture is defined as the collection of beliefs, expectations, and values shared by the members of an organization. The firm s culture, a broad representation of how the firm does business, is an important characteristic of the organization because it captures the way, often unspoken and informalRead MoreBusiness Plan For A New Venture1355 Words   |  6 PagesA business plan can be used for beginning a new business, to create a more profitable business or for consideration of new services and ideas. A business plan is a written document that gives details on a business idea or venture and present the outlook of the business over a number of years. This plan will guide the business project management and operations, assist in vital decisions and measure performance. There are many types of business plans and not one of them is considered a universal planRead MoreCase Study Mr.Dees Essay1721 Words   |  7 PagesModel, he focused on ensuring all th e workers know what what is expected of them. That means that he shows a high level of self awareness† * When Mr.Dee was working for Agri, he made a business plan for Mr.Steven who wants to buy The Illinois Central Gulf Railroad. He did not just want to sell this plan, he wants to explain to members that they can emotionally involved. At first he applied the forming and storming stages of team building in order to be more acceptable. Then he applied the norming

Friday, May 8, 2020

Analytics Is The Discovery And Communication Of Meaningful...

Analytics is the discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in data. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded information, analytics relies on the simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming and operations research to quantify performance. Analytics often favours data visualization to communicate insight. Why you need analytics? ïÆ' ¼ To measure and track your results across time ïÆ' ¼ To understand your visitors, leads, prospect ïÆ' ¼ To understand, track and improve the mechanisms used to convert your first visitor into valuable customers. In today’s complex business environment, the field of data analytics is growing in acceptance and importance. It is playing a critical role as a decision-making resource for executives, especially those managing large companies. To shed more light on how companies are taking advantage of analytics, â€Å"Deloitte Analytics† commissioned The Analytics Advantage, the first in an annual series of surveys focusing on the state of analytics readiness at leading corporations and what the future holds. In general every company Compete on Analytics in the following way: Today, organizations are working in a profoundly aggressive and complex environment where new advancements, items and administrations are making new commercial ventures, changing client practices and driving new rivalry. In this environment, authoritative choices should be founded on precise and clever information. TCS progressed investigation abilitiesShow MoreRelatedEssay On Big Data930 Words   |  4 Pagestraditional data pertaining to citizens. A smart city utilizes IoT sensors, actuators and technology to connect components across the city. Data gathered from various segments is analyzed and patterns are derived from the collected data which helps in decision making. Big data analytics is the use of advanced analytic techniques against very large and diverse data sets. Data sets whose size or type is beyond the ability of traditional relational databases to capture, manage, and process the data withRead MoreCollaborative Big Data Analytics And Visualization2754 Words   |  12 PagesCOLLABORATIVE BIG DATA ANALYTICS AND VISUALIZATION A LITERATURE REVIEW Abdulazeez Adejumo Department of Computer Systems Technology North Carolina Agricultural Technical State University MARCH 2015 Abstract This paper discusses collaboration using big data analytics and visualization. It tries to bring to fore the advantages of collaborative analysis using visualization tools. How information visualization can enhance effective collaborative decisionRead MoreBig Dat An Essential Part Of Every Business Operation2767 Words   |  12 PagesIntroduction: You may have heard the term â€Å"Big Data† often these days and the importance of analytics attached to it. The availability of good data set and analytics of it provide organizations ability to understand consumer behavior and future prospects. This has now become an essential part of every business operation. Data itself is not a new thing to humans, written records have been in existence since 4th millennium BC. What has changed recently is that with digital inventions and significantRead MoreAnalytics Is The Discovery, Interpretation, And Communication Essay1931 Words   |  8 PagesAnalytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded information, analytics relies on the simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming and operations research to quantify performance. Analytics often favours data visualization to communicate insight. Organizations may apply analytics to business data to describe, predict, and improve business performance. Specifically, areas within analyticsRead MoreLiterature Review On Business Intelligence2107 Words   |  9 PagesLiterature Review On Business Intelligence Architecture 1. Introduction: Business Intelligence is a concept or technique which refines the raw data into meaningful information in order to get strategic or business decisions to the organizations. It deals with many concepts like data mining, online analytical processes(OLAP), Data warehousing. The purpose is to upgrade the attribute of inputs, its timely nature to the business decision process. It is used to recognize the capacity availableRead MoreImpact Of Big Data Technology On The Field Of Accounting And Management Essay2087 Words   |  9 Pagesdiscuss the influence of big data analytics as a proposed solution to improve and develop BSC model, and then investigate BSC model in a big data environment. 1. Introduction The increase of performance measurement systems (like Balanced Scorecard (BSC)) complexity has led to an increase in the amount of data (created by smart devices, RFID technologies, sensors, social media, video surveillance and more) to be acquired, processed, and analyzed to provide meaningful information to support decision-makingRead MoreA Report On A Hospital Information System1599 Words   |  7 PagesInformation System (HIS) refers to the information system used in hospitals for efficiently managing a huge data generated all-round the year. It deals with monitoring of the health status, provision of different services, drug stocks and consumption patterns, equipment status and availability, Finances and revenue management. Thus, a HIS can be installed in order to manage any of these. These systems help the hospitals in keeping an accurate, relevant and up to date information from various sources andRead MoreSupply Chain Management : Acme Mexico City Management2021 Wo rds   |  9 Pagesthis paper is to determine the various operations management techniques that can be engaged by Acme Mexico City in an effort to increase its profits and expand operations globally. The three operations management techniques to be examined are Data Analytics, linear programming, and sustainable supply chain management. This report finds that data-driven decision-making involves the collection, mixing and examining of data received from multiple sources throughout the organization. Acme gathers informationRead MoreSLA Lg teaching methods approaches7312 Words   |  30 Pagesfor teaching and learning modern languages does not exist. Instead, teachers now acknowledge the need to adopt an informed eclectic approach, incorporating elements from the range of methods available. Most language teaching today emphasise oral communication, although many Higher Education programmes, including some CRAMLAP questionnaire respondents, place greater emphasis upon grammatical ma stery and reading. In attempting to define what ‘method’ is, we can consider Edward Anthony’s tripartiteRead MoreTB11e 1031145 Words   |  125 Pageslaw of commerce c. law of trade d. law of documents e. law of freedom ANSWER: a (page 262) National:   AACSB Analytic;  Communication; AICPA BB-Legal 2. The ______________ evolved in commerce over the centuries. a. law of invention b. law of commerce c. law of trade d. law of documents e. none of the other choices are correct ANSWER: e (page 262) National:   AACSB Analytic;  Communication; AICPA BB-Legal 3. The ________________ means that there are also responsibilities imposed on parties who commit

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Atmospheric Pollution Free Essays

string(222) " passed addressing specific problems in this area of law, for example, atmospheric pollution from chemical industries and ‘unclean’ modes of transport, water pollution and the regulation of statutory nuisance\." Firstly, we must question: How does air pollution occur? To understand this, one is required to recognise the earth’s surroundings. Life is totally dependant upon the blanket of mixed gases referred to as ‘air’ surrounding our planet earth. This atmosphere is, approximately, a five hundred kilometre thick1 composite layer of colourless, odourless gasses that surrounds the earth kept in place by gravitational forces. We will write a custom essay sample on Atmospheric Pollution or any similar topic only for you Order Now Due to its intangible form, it is often ignored by man, making it vulnerable and easily damaged (this fact being highlighted by a large number of disasters caused, effectively, by man). The political and scientific debate on the so called ‘Greenhouse Effect’ is based on concern over increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide resulting from combustion of fossil fuels and emissions of other ‘Greenhouse Gases’ – such as methane (from decomposing waste), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrous oxides (NOx). The activities of homo sapiens have introduced these new chemicals into the atmosphere and disturbed the distribution of its natural constituents. At first, this was limited to the effect of the fireplace, but later, with the greatly expanded usage of coal, these effects grew more acute. And, after the Industrial Revolution, these effects were compounded. As will be made clear, this revolution reached such a point that consequences began to be regarded more than just an inevitable residue of industrialisation and the struggle for economic growth. 1.1 Secondly, in order to intertwine the above information with the issue at hand, it may be necessary to ask oneself, what is environmental law, who is using it and for what purposes? These questions are being posed, as it is imperative to understand the background of the subject, not just for this subtopic in environmental law, but any topic, before entering it in any depth. Environmental law is first and foremost, a combination of primary legislation2, secondary legislation3 (which will be explained in more depth throughout the project), judicial decisions, common law principles, European Community legislation4 – ‘which impose an obligation on members states to enact legislation to give effect to the terms of the Directive’5 which are transposed into national law (as regulations), European treaties and international law (found in treaties, conventions and protocols). 1.2 The foremost function of environmental law is not, as many would imagine, to completely eliminate pollution altogether, but rather, to allow, or balance pollution levels with the gains we, as a society receive from economic growth. This phenomenon, known most frequently as ‘sustainable development’ is one that will be referred to time and time again in any environmental law topic. Sustainable development’s widely accepted definition is to be found in the 1987 Bruntland Report – â€Å"Our Common Future† (the report for the World Commission on Environmental Development 1987). It states: ‘†¦development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs’. In layman terms, what this report was recommending, or advising the inhabitants of this earth to do, was to use our resources on the planet in such a manner, so as not to jeopardise the way in which it can be used by others in those years after us. A classic example highlighting the necessity of sustainable development is that of the Communist regimes, such in Poland, in which they favoured production and economic development over protection of the environment. In brief, economic growth will lead to changes in the environment. If this growth is not controlled/governed, it can lead to an ugly and dangerous environment. One could be as bold as to say that obviously, the overriding consideration of any commercial enterprise is the maintenance and expansion of profit. To achieve this, one tactic is to minimize costs and this can occur by reviewing methods of disposal of unwanted materials. If discharging these wastes into the atmosphere represents the cheapest way of accomplishing this, then the industry will have a strong inclination to adopt this strategy. The costs of disposal do not disappear when pollution is emitted into the atmosphere, and as has been discovered, the society will eventually end up paying far greater costs. Therefore, it is the governments of each nation must choose limits to benefit both the environment and economic growth. This is often referred to as ‘anthroprecantic’7 and most law is based on it. As it was eventually assessed (with regards to the situation in Poland) that their lack of concern for the environment in which they inhabited was, in effect, the reason for their poor economic advancement. It was also noted that their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was less than those countries who followed the anthroprecantic system. This perhaps is the most precise example of how the environment plays such a big factor on our lives, not just for our health, but also for the development of our respective countries. (After all, it is the aspiration of each and every governing nation to become wealthy and prosperous – economic development is at the heart of each nation). In working towards sustainable development, whether in broad terms or looking at one particular aspect such as air quality, a number of basic concepts must guide action. These concepts have been clearly outlined in a number of governmental papers8. Within the United Kingdom’s largely secular and pragmatic society, it seems inevitable that pollution is view in an economic context. 2.0 The industrial revolution was the main cause of such concern over the environment. Before this time, ‘environmental law in England and Wales was characterised by a parochial focus on localised pollution problems’9. Such problems date back to the early uses of coal in domestic fires. The production of fumes and particulates from fires caused pulmonary infections and related lung diseases. Notwithstanding this effect, coal continued to be used. In 1661, John Evelyn published his famous work on air pollution in city areas, Fumi Fugiumi, which not only outlined the problems that atmospheric pollution from smoke caused, but also, more importantly, tried to suggest methods by which the problem could be resolved. After this period, much legislation was passed addressing specific problems in this area of law, for example, atmospheric pollution from chemical industries and ‘unclean’ modes of transport, water pollution and the regulation of statutory nuisance. You read "Atmospheric Pollution" in category "Papers" 2.1 Very few areas of the United Kingdom are safe from air pollution. Pollution levels exceed Government health standards all over the country on many days every year, even in rural areas. It is difficult to assess exactly the impact of air pollution on public health. However the government itself stated that: â€Å"the Department of Health’s latest assessment is that air pollution is at present responsible each year for several thousand advanced deaths; for ten to twenty thousand hospital admissions, and for many thousands of instances of illness, reduced activity, distress and discomfort†10. It was also assessed that short-term episodes cause between 12,700 and 19,500 premature deaths in the UK a year11. And three years prior to this, it was estimated12 that short-term pollution episodes were responsible for between 12,000 and 24,000 deaths per year. These figures have put new pressure on the Government to fully support the Road Traffic Reduction Bill13, from Cynog Dafis MP. Over 400 Members of Parliament are supporting the principles of the Bill, which requires the government to produce a national plan to cut road traffic from 1990 levels by 5% by the year 2005 and 10% by the year 2010. As can be imagined, road transport is a major source of air pollution in the UK. Five of the key pollutants are: particulates (fine dust and soot particles – PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), benzene and hydrocarbons (HCs). ‘After more than half a century of under-investment in Britain, roads are the most congested in Europe’14. However, knowing that transport is the cornerstone of modern society, yet it is responsible for poor air quality in many urban centres around the world, what is there that can be done about its damaging effect on our environment? There are increasing concerns about the impact of traffic exhaust emissions on the health of citizens who are exposed to the high concentrations of pollutants, plus the wider global implications. Legislation is helping clean up vehicles and fuel, but there is a significant time lag while the vehicle stock is being replaced. In the interim, mechanisms could to be introduced that accelerate the replacement of vehicles or improve the existing stock. 2.2 In the UK such a concept has taken the form of Low Emission Zones, which aim to restrict the use of the most polluting vehicles from specific areas in an urban environment. In Sweden, a similar concept has been in operation since 1996 whereby environmental standards are specified for heavy vehicles entering the central area of the main cities. The government has also recently set health standards for eight key pollutants. For these pollutants it has also set policy targets to be reached by the year 2005. Meeting these targets will need action locally, nationally and internationally. The Environment Act 1995 set up a system known as Local Air Quality Management through which local authorities will play a major part in reducing pollution levels. 2.3 If we are to meet the Government’s targets for air pollution, then pollution from traffic must be cut drastically. There are two main ways to do this: Traffic reduction: cutting the volume of traffic on the roads. A number of environmental organisations are supporting the Road Traffic Reduction Act (which is now law) and the Road Traffic Reduction (UK Targets) Bill. This Bill, which is currently in Parliament as a Private Members Bill, aims to cut traffic levels nationally by 5% by 2005 and 10% by 2010. Greener cars: making sure that cars pollute as little as is possible. This is achieved through tightening engine technology and fuel quality standards. These standards are set at a European level15. 2.4 Although the above issues are seemingly simple, everyone does not welcome the manner in which they will be implemented. For example, There are a huge number in opposition to the government increasing taxes on fuel, and in one particular instance, it was stated by a former chairman of a lobbying institution, that ‘if Gordon Brown increases his fuel taxes, he will see the same situation as he saw in Autumn 2000’ [where there was a great number of protests and havoc was caused around Britain]16 This threat was reinforced by a totally independent party, namely the Petrol Retailers Association, who warned ‘if taxes on motor fuels are increased, petrol forecourts will close’17. With statistics and threats such as those provided, it is difficult to advise what the government can do to aid the situation. The Liberal Democrat party also showed its urgency when it released a statement highlighting its concern that the Chancellor of the Exchequer must freeze fuel taxes in real terms for the lifetime of this Parliament. The party also called for a ‘sliding scale’ of car tax emissions, so that consumers with polluting vehicles paying higher duties, and those with the most environmentally friendly, paying nothing18. And, in support of this plea, it was stated, by The Confederation of British Industry, that they would be ‘surprised and disappointed if there was a real increase in fuel duties’ 2.5 The Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, who is behind many of the more noticeable environmental issues with regards to London stated in his manifesto that he aims to ‘put the environment at the heart of London government and provide for comprehensive environmental assessment and monitoring of all strategies which the Mayor is required to produce’19. In addition to this, the Mayor said that he will ‘aim to reduce road traffic by 15% by 2010’20. In favour of this aim, recent figures suggest that the UK’s emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are being reduced21 and in addition, greenhouse gases are also being reduced. However, as stated previously, with the correction of specific pollution problems, comes an uplift of other hazards, such as in this case, the increase in carbon dioxide emissions and recent developments in the electricity market suggest problematic situations. 3.0 All aspects of environmental law have a domestic, European and international dimension to them. For example, if one lives in a country where there are dangerous waste materials being transported thorough, the government of transporting town will ensure that the standard of safety provided is of a standard expected on a international level. These precautions must be taken in any environmental situation as will be discovered through this assignment. The influence of international law on the regulation of air pollution has been significant. This may be in recognition of the fact that many of the problems caused by air pollution can have impacts across a large geographical area (and in many cases cause seriously global effects). There have been a number of areas where international law has helped to shape policies and rules on both a domestic and European level. Therefore, with regards to our particular topic, atmospheric pollution in England is regulated, not only by domestic bodies, but moreover, on a European and global level. The problems related to air pollution are by no means a new phenomenon. The prohibitions on certain activities producing smoke are probably the first instances of environment pollution legislation in the United Kingdom, and legislation dates back to 1863 with the Alkali Act, Public Health Act 1875 and 1936, Public Health (Smoke Abatement) Act 1926 and the Clean Air Act (CAA) 1956. The first modern piece of legislation combating air pollution, namely the Alkali Act, represented the culmination of a long period of dissatisfaction with environmental conditions, especially in London. For example, in 1819, an M.P had written, â€Å"[T]he volumes of smoke which issues from the furnaces on every side of the river Thames opposite my own house actually blacken every flower I have in my own garden in Whitehall†22 Until the CAA 1956 was introduced, the government of Britain has had a large amount of difficulty in tackling the problems of atmospheric pollution. Nowadays, the 3 main pollution controls in Britain (which will be clearly explained in detail in), are the Integrated Pollution Control (IPC)23 and Integrated Pollution and Control (IPPC), the Clean Air Act (CAA)24 1993 (a consolidation of the CAA 1956 and CAA 1968), and the controls relating to vehicle emissions. In addition to these, the Environmental Act 1995 25(EA 1995) naturally plays a large role, as it does in all environmental issues. 3.1 Having discussed the topic of environmental law, recapped on the history of atmospheric pollution, and established that there is a need for change, it is now necessary to discuss and evaluate the measures and changes which have been made, by domestic, European and international governments along with a vast number of very influential pressure groups. The main three are (mentioned in section ): a) The Integrated Pollution Control (IPC)26 and Integrated Pollution and Control (IPPC) license based controls relating to a range of highly polluting industries detailed in part1 of the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990 and the Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) 1999. b) The criminal sanction based controls over the emission of smoke and other particulate matter from chimneys and furnaces detailed in the Clean Air Act (CAA) 1993. c) Controls relating to vehicle emissions. These controls encompass engine efficiency standards, the chemical composition of fuels, the mandatory use of catalytic converters, eco-taxes, price differentials between different types of fuel and the use of traffic management powers.27. The aforementioned controls are an enhancement made by the Environmental Act 1995. 3.2 The CAA 1993 concentrates on the control of emissions on smoke, dust and grit by means of criminal offences. The main offences are, emissions of dark smoke – from a chimney or from industrial premises, emissions of dust and grit from non-domestic furnaces, emissions of smoke from a chimney in a ‘Smoke Control Area’ and various other offences relating to the installation of furnaces. Having stated earlier, atmospheric pollution is not merely a domestic issue, the involvement of Europe is particularly highlighted with the great many directives established. Since 1993, when the Maastricht Treaty on the European Union (EU) reformed the Treaty of Rome, Articles 130r – 130t of the EC Treaty have provided the legal basis for Community environmental law. Specifically, under Article 130r (2), environmental policy is guided by four principles: the precautionary, the polluter-pays principle, the integration principle, and the source principle. Moreover, the aforementioned Article further provides that a directive or regulation may include a ‘safeguard clause’, which allows Member States to take any appropriate measure to protect the environment in case of emergency28. European Community (EC) measures to curb air pollution can be divided into different categories. Emissions from industrial plants – whereby the most important directive is the Large Combustion Plant Directive (88/609/EEC). In addition to this, Directives 89/369/EEC (dealing with emissions from incineration plants, and Directive 96/61/EC (IPPC) which was implemented into national law in 1999 are the most important directives regarding Emissions from industrial plants. Another category is that of Air pollution affecting the ozone layer and global warming in which EC regulations 3322/88, 591/91 and 549/91 which have banned CFCs and hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs), respectively. Air quality standards have been inputted in Air Quality Framework Directives (96/62/EC) and 99/30/EC. As can be seen, the EC has implemented a large number of directives, however, what is not apparent from the information given, is which have been implemented in British national law. The EC also concentrates on vehicle emission standards, product quality standards and atmospheric pollution and waste reduction29. 4.0 As an evaluation, it is necessary to view the opinions and publications of specialised bodies that thrive to ever improve the environment, such as Green Peace and Friends of the Earth. However, when consulting such sources, one is required to acknowledging the great possibilities of biasness, in order to assess the contribution these measures and policies have made on the atmospheric pollution levels in Britain. Regarding one particular publication issued by Friends of the Earth, it was stated, that by using government data and methods to calculate an Air Quality Indicator for 1999 established that air quality is still ‘very poor’. The calculation shows, for key monitoring sites around Britain, the average number of days on which air pollution levels were above the Government’s air quality standard. John Prescott called it a â€Å"key quality of life indicator†. It was also stated that road traffic is the major source of air pollution in the UK, which is responsible for 48% of UK emissions of nitrogen dioxide, 26% of particles, 2% of sulphur dioxide and 74% of carbon monoxide. Ozone is a secondary pollutant, produced by reactions between nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons. Road traffic is responsible for 38% of UK emissions of hydrocarbons. In this report, it was stated that the share of pollution produced by road traffic would be significantly higher in towns and cities. 4.1 The (New) Labour government took office in 1997 promising to be â€Å"the first truly green Government ever† and to put â€Å"concern for the environment at the heart of policy making†. There have been real achievements. In Labour’s first term, both Tony Blair and John Prescott led international efforts to agree the Kyoto treaty to fight climate change. Labour committed the UK to cut emissions of carbon dioxide, the most significant climate changing gas, by 20% by 2010. Despite Tony Blair’s very close relationship with the United States, he is still prepared to criticise President Bush for reneging on this treaty and attempting to undermine support for it from other states. Gordon Brown overcame considerable hostility from the business lobby to introduce the Climate Levy, which has begun to give industry clear incentives to cut emissions. Unfortunately, this is where achievements tend to become more difficult to establish. Early in Labour’s first term, Chancellor Gordon Brown took important steps to implement the basic principle of green taxation, that tax should be raised on polluting and environmentally destructive behaviour, with the revenues used to pay for green initiatives and to cut taxes on employment. But New Labour has now simply surrendered to the fuel tax protestors, and abandoned the process of gradually raising fuel duty to ensure that the cost of motoring more accurately reflects the environmental damage it causes. And in his last Budget, Brown put employers’ National Insurance contributions back up again, increasing the cost of labour and discouraging job creation.30 4.2 Ultimately, it appears that any capitalist economy must face the full scale of any atmospheric pollution problem presented by their production. As stated in 1.2, a capitalist economy focuses on survival of the fittest to ensure its own self preservation. Eventually, if the exhaustion of natural resources is approached, a capitalist economy will have to modify it’s own behaviour to guarantee it’s own survival, for it requires these resources to continue it’s existence. It appears as though we are, environmentally, living in a vicious circle, whereby our preventative measures are preventing one particular problem, but at the same time, causing a problem of a different nature. It is only when that problem becomes apparent to public knowledge that it begins to be tackled. It appears, from methods undertaken before, for the protection of the environment that we may be preventing the condition of our earth from deteriorating to such a dismal point. Our structural interventions in capitalist economy do not appear without merit, albeit sometimes unnoticeable. 4.3 It was stated by Al Gore31 in his book ‘ Earth in the Balance’: †Modern industrial civilisation is colliding violently with our planet’s ecological system.’ We inherited Eden and are leaving our children a depleted rubbish tip’32. However, on a global scale, this appears not to be, in my opinion, the case. Having researched this project for a number of months, one can honestly believe that environmentally, things are getting better. Although issues are still to be found on a daily basis in any newspaper one picks up, the fact remains that things are getting better – or are getting worse, at a slower rate than they were previously. 4.3 ‘Air pollution is not a new phenomenon that has been getting worse and worse, but an old phenomenon that has been getting better and better, leaving London cleaner than it has been since the Middle Ages.’33 Having evaluated governmental policies and researched air pollution, foremost in Britain, one would hope that this statement can now be conclusively agree, or disagreed with. Evidently, the system in which the British government takes actions often referred to as the ‘sectoral approach’34 means that whilst our nation is tackling one particular aspect of pollution, another problem would shift to another sector. ‘Britain has a problem with embarking upon the environmental issue on the whole’35. Therefore, in a brief summary of the above conclusions, it can be said that the environmental issues themselves are not seemingly the problem. Moreover, it is the funding of the implementation that causes the problems. Environmental issues are being discovered and publicised weekly. If the nation were to consider only issues relating to the environment (which it seems the Green Party and other such organisation are aiming for), there would be no advancement in other fields. Therefore, the question of sustainable development is highlighted again. How much should a nation consider the state of the environment, when clearly it needs to concentrate on the economy? As everyone is aware, the government obtains most of it’s funding from taxes. If they were to continuously tax the nation, then no one would vote for them. Therefore, they have to bind their policies with one another and establish a sustainable method in which to provide both for the present, and the growing nation. Consequently, on the whole, the implementation of policies and legislation appear to be having a generally good effect on the atmospheric pollution level in Britain. One question remains, however, and that is, for how long will the preventative principle prevail, and will be sufficient in curbing an environmental hazard? In essence, it appears as though sustainable development is the mainframe of environmental and political ideology, and that government policy, and legislative implementation is delivering a sound task in the   field of atmospheric pollution in maintaining sustainable development. After all, it must be remembered, that no organisation in this world is flawless in its methods, and with it come faults, as is evident with the topic of atmospheric pollution. On the whole, policy and legislation appear to be achieving the ever fervent goal of sustainability. How to cite Atmospheric Pollution, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Pedagogical Perspective of Learning

Table of Contents Learning perspective Experimental Model Barriers Organizational utilization Conclusion References David Guile Toni Griffiths present a multi dimensional analysis on the development of work experience by students before their graduation and subsequent absorption to the job market. Contemporary learning theories, new developments in adult learning and education as well as curriculum development theory has been used as a basis to critique the current thinking that underlies work experience learning. Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Pedagogical Perspective of Learning specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What the authors aim to bring out in their analysis is the issue of context as it applies in learning through education. According to them context has been ignored by most models that seek to explain work experience and as a result they recommend a formulation of new curriculum frameworks that ack nowledge that work takes many forms and within the wider context of work, students should be engaged fully in theory quest for acquisition of knowledge, skills and identity. To expound further on the above aim of the paper, the authors analyze different systems of work experience activities that are available to students from various European countries. These activities aim to help students learn and develop vertically as well as horizontally within the many contexts of education and work. The paper does also analyze the different models that explain the approaches used in acquiring work experience. The models also examine the policy changes that have taken place towards the learner, skills acquired, and to the field of pedagogy. The analysis in the paper borders on the critical. Guille and Griffiths argue that the any analysis of work experience must incorporate the different contexts in which the topic of study falls. They also argue that most of the models that are used in this studies approach issues generally hence fail to give a clear picture of what work related studies are and how they are executed. The general approach also fails to examine the weaknesses that the system has hence thee programs remain unaltered for their betterment. The authors finally suggest a drastic review of the VET programs to ensure that students gain from them by learning to relate their vertical development to their horizontal development. Theoretical learning that characterizes learning that takes place in the classrooms is vertical. Failure to put in place an elaborate horizontal learning environment that can only be provided by these programs only produces half baked students to the job market. Learning perspective The paper concentrates on the pedagogical perspective of learning. Pedagogy is a teacher-centered approach where the teacher decides what to feed the learner. In pedagogy, the teacher decides the content how it should be done and when. Andragogy on the other h and is mostly suited for adults where learners have a say on what they should and should not be taught. Advertising Looking for report on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In andragogy, the learner is pretty much in control. In the paper, David Guile Toni Griffiths present a learning experience where the students will be absorbed to some sort of apprenticeship in different contexts. The learners will not have much say on what they will learn, rather their host organizations will. Though an andragogical approach may apply to some extent where their views will be sough and possibly some modifications made to their learning program, they will most of the time take what they will be taught. According to Lave and Wenger (1991) as quoted by Guile Griffiths (2001), organizations only need to give students learning through work experience some legitimate peripheral participation in the learning for them to acquire the requ ired knowledge and skills from the experiences others (p. 5). Lack of an explicitly endorsement of an andragogical approach to the learning of the students by David Guile Toni Griffith is a clear indication that they prefer the mode of learning that is presented in the paper-pedagogy. Further more, Guile Griffith (2001) say that the extent to which the host organization may decide to allow students in apprenticeship to interact with more knowledgeable others depend on the HR departments (p. 5). However, on calling on the review of the way the programs work, the authors are advocating for a change in the approach on the work study programs that include a bigger role for andragogical approaches. They cite a recent EU policy that calls for a reassessment of the relationship between work and education as well as the role of work experiences in academic and vocational programs. The call for the EU review is motivated by the increasingly globalised word with a corporate and civil envi ronment that demands pro-activeness. The review that has been called on by the EU is meant to support life long learning and it can only be achieved by an andragogical approach to work study experience. Many scholars in the EU and North America however challenge the suggestion that radical measures have to be taken to ensure an andragogical approach to work study programs. Quoting (Miller et al 1991; Stern Wagner 1999a) and (Griffiths et al 1992, Miller Forrest 1996, Stern Wagner 1999a) Guille Griffiths say that the approach is can only be successful to a certain extent. These scholars further adopt only a function view of the success of these programs and the relationship between work and education. Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Pedagogical Perspective of Learning specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though they acknowledge that the working context of work experience are stable environments that these prog rams may works, their effectiveness and success is greatly hindered by the global economic pressures together with speedy development of information and communication technology that is fast changing the business environment. The result is the great polarization between those organizations that are knowledge rich and those that are knowledge poor (p. 3). The above position therefore presents a look warm endorsement or andragogy as the mode of learning in the work experience work contexts. Experimental Model The paper presents five models of used in the learning approach taken by students in work experience learning. One of the models is the experimental model. This model seeks front the idea that work experience should be a co-developer just like classroom studies are. It advocates for the learner to be put through experimental learning so that students can be exposed to useful frameworks of understanding about their work. The model gives impetus to the students social and interper sonal development compared to the formal education that he receives. Additionally, the model aims at fulfilling the desire to equate the value of learning to the practical applications that go along with it as well as ensuring students easily adjust to the dynamic trends of labor (Guile Griffith, 2002). The model is more forceful in its trajectory of student development in the work place. It is also seen as a form of co development of interested parties i.e. the student and the host organization as the employee and employer respectively. The model advocates for the development of education partnership between the learning institutions and the potential employers in the respective fields where the learner fits. Barriers An in-depth look that is presented in the paper has one major weakness. It can only be used to identify and classify a learner as a converger, diverger, assimilator, or accommodator. Advertising Looking for report on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, it can fail to identify a learner in one of the above classes potentially injuring a learner’s reputation and through the internship reports. This is more likely in situations where the learner may not be placed in the right department owing to the stringent processes that will be required to select them from their learning institutions, which most of the time do not take place. The only way to avoid a scenario like the above is only to use the model sparingly without giving much emphasis to an extent it will normally determine if a learner is fit and ready for the job market. Another weakness of the experimental learning model is the failure to develop the learner. Kolb himself is on record to have said that experimental models including his own as other such as Honey and Mumford and Junch are all about learning and little about development. According to Kolb, the limitations of his learning cycle are brought because the model represents only elementary learni ng orientations. These orientations will in the long rum accustom a learner to apply the practical skill that he leant across the board without much consideration of the field of practice. Again, the model is not all incorporating nor doest it acknowledge the importance of self reflection instead it aims at feeding the learner with practical with little regard to personal preferences and feelings. It also does not take into account the different cultural experiences and conditions that a learner and work places fall into. Some experimentation may be in complete conflict with people’s beliefs hence the result will not be a pleasant learning experience for the learner. Beside, there criticism that the idea steps to evaluating every learner’s potential are not realistic and are overly ambitious. The steps can easily be jumped or ignored. Their neat and near perfect presentation make them just simplistic. The same can be said of the relationship between learning and know ledge. Finally there is little empirical support to accompany the evaluations that Kolb suggests. To counter the limitation, Kolb suggests inclusion of a development model that will ensure the learner develops as he learns. Organizational utilization The learning institution that in this case is the place of work where the learner will be stationed, can immensely benefit from the implementation of the above model. Through the method, the learning institution will be able to select the right people with concrete experience that will easily conceptualize, reflect, and come up with unique business solutions. However, as said earlier, success of the above model depend on implementing it with other learning and development styles to ensure work experience study objectives are achieved. Conclusion A review of the programs that exists in the provision of work experiences is necessary. However it’s important if it could reflect the realities that face the working environments in the 21st century. References Guile, D Griffiths, T (2001), Learning through work experience. Journal of Education and Work, vol. 14, no. 3, pp113-131. This report on Pedagogical Perspective of Learning was written and submitted by user Bart Rozum to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The Thread of History

The Thread of History Any society can be compared to a living organism that gets born, grows and changes according to the time, environment and processes that go on internally. Any group of people has their own beliefs and regulations which are backed up by history, traditions and culture.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Thread of History specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In any society there are people who get their opinion widely known and they are sometimes called visionaries. For the past twenty years, society has experienced many rapid changes, and thinkers and writers often offered their opinions, as to what is going on under the surface and where the present world is going to be in the future. All societies have intricate traditions and structures with work and leisure time. One of the oldest activities that people are engaged in is sports or any kind of physical games. Steve Craig, in his book titled â€Å"Sports and Games of the Ancients† looks at how societies view games and how they are comprehended personally and socially. One of the important points is that each society has a form of games that are played publicly, for people’s entertainment. Socially, it says several things, as the population is very multifaceted. Primarily, it is that people need a form of entertainment that can be watched live. People are interested in seeing other fellow human beings in action and the key feature of the sport which is its unpredictability makes the viewing even more exciting and desired. The unique nature of games is very original because it cannot be fully predicted and people are drawn to that (Craig 1). Comparing to the television, where people are playing out formed scripts, games are much different. Even though previously, in the early days, there were games and the need for them, people’s interest and commercialization have grown immensely at the onset of television and other m ass media. This led to people wanting more and expecting sights that were non-existent before. It begs a question of why do people really need entertainment and what would happen without it. It is a part of human soul and emotional existence, as without it, people would have work and duties that are a part of the routine and not feelings. A close connection to the pleasures of life is explored by Deborah Blum in her book â€Å"Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection†. Just as people need mass and public entertainment, they need affection and love. This is one of the starting points in life and it very much sets up the rest of a person’s development. It is interesting that the way a person will feel about themselves, others, their ability to be in public places, feel confidence and connection to people; all these things get influenced by how the infant and child are treated.Advertising Looking for research paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She mentions Harry Harlow who did experiments with monkeys and was rather successful. The experiments proved that baby monkey sometimes needed affection and â€Å"warmth† of their mother more than food. This and other experiments, as well as the views of Deborah Blum reiterate the fact that people need love and any society must have healthy and loving individuals for the whole nation or country to prosper (Blum 15). In a work titled â€Å"The Pyrotechnic Insanitarium: American Culture on the Brink†, Mark Dery describes a new age of life and society. The twenty first century has brought many changes and the focus can be seen on the rapid development of entertainment but also, on the negatives and short backs of society. The conspiracy theory is mentioned, and people start to realize that in the fast moving world there are things that could be unseen and under the surface. It is somewhat re bated by saying that in reality, there are no conspiracies and the politics are very much openly viewed but it does not seem convincing. The entertainment and pleasures of people are going hand in hand with the horrors that human mind offers. With the increasing crime rates and technological advancement, people are receiving more information and problems to deal with. The heights of human brain power are allowing predicting that the future will bring even more challenges and people will face something that has never been seen before (Dery 30). It is very true that human mind is still a mystery and it is quite difficult to see what people are capable of. Alfred Lubrano discuses another part of the changing world in a book titled â€Å"Limbo: Blue-Collar Roots, White-Collar Dreams†. He especially points to the division between people socially and personally. For as long as there has been humanity, people have had different duties according to own views but also to the world aro und them. The division between the working and the middle class is what Alfred Lubrano talks about. He describes the qualities of people who are born to be a part of the middle class and that there is no way of becoming anything else. It touches upon the moral issue of a person desiring what they want to do in their life but at the same time, creating opportunities to achieve whatever it is they strive to reach. Education is mentioned as an important part of the process in becoming successful and this reflects in the scope of bigger things in society. This is becoming very true in any part of the world, as the evolution of technologies and workforce is delving into a different sphere, uncommon to the previous century. The world is becoming business oriented and there are many individuals who consider it their life’s calling to become a part of it (Lubrano 10).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Thread of History specifically for you for o nly $16.05 $11/page Learn More Vivian Sobchack takes a look at the modern society and examines the future in the work titled â€Å"Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture†. The world is acquiring so many angles and perspectives that it is becoming harder to keep track of. She refers to â€Å"Hansel and Gretel† in relation to the fact that without the â€Å"breadcrumbs† people might become lost (Sobchack 13). This representation is meant to show that people need guidance. The future world has many mysteries and people need organization and each other’s help to find the way. The world is becoming divided into spaces that are foreign and sometimes, unequal. Even though this is an age of knowledge and people’s rights, there is still much to learn, especially in the relationship between people and different groups. Vivian Sobchack qualifies people as being lost in the world, not knowing what to do and how to adjust to the fa st moving pace. There starts to evolve a sort of separation between the world and the masses, and an individual is not aware of what is expected of them regarding themselves and society. People start to create false realities and whatever they think is right, eventually becomes empty space and people are forced to re-think their goals and dreams. Another look at the modern world and the way it is being run is taken by Linda Seger in a book â€Å"Jesus Rode a Donkey: Why Republicans Dont Have the Corner on Christ†. The author compares people’s religious beliefs to the political system and what is expects and required of people (Seger 7). Many are faced with sacrifices that have to be made for the system to prosper. But there is also a different side of the coin, where others get rich at the expense of people who are fulfilling their duty to be a good citizen. Linda Seger reinforces that in order for people to go into the future, they must be understanding and kind to ea ch other. The simplicity of their actions and straightforward manner will create best conditions of life for all human beings. The new age has given people power to vote for their leaders and enjoy the rights and freedoms that are naturally given but is unclear what these freedoms can sometimes bring. All the writers and thinkers have a very common theme that centers on people which is their needs and the evolving society. People want to be happy and keep finding ways of how to enjoy the life. Even though the majority bases their existence on goodness, there are those who want to use the population and gain more than is needed. This leads to an important question of the changing world and the expectancies that people have towards it. It must be just and equal to all and this should be the motto of the future. Blum, Deborah. Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection. New York, United States: Basic Books, 2011. Print.Advertising Looking for research paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Craig, Steve. Sports and Games of The Ancients. Westport, United States: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Print. Dery, Mark. The Pyrotechnic Insanitarium: American Culture on the Brink. New York, United States: Grove Press, 2000. Print. Lubrano, Alfred. Limbo: Blue-Collar Roots, White-Collar Dreams. Hoboken, United States: John Wiley Sons, 2010. Print. Seger, Linda. Jesus Rode A Donkey: Why Republicans Dont Have the Corner on Christ. Avon, United States: Adams Media, 2010. Print. Sobchack, Vivian. Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture. Los Angeles, United States: University of California Press, 2004. Print.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Can rejecting a job offer actually elevate your career

Can rejecting a job offer actually elevate your career Imagine going through the grueling process of creating your resume, optimizing your LinkedIn profile, applying to dozens of jobs, and going on a handful of interviews to finally be offered the job – only to turn it down! Are you insane? Why would anyone ever decline a job offer after going through all this? Maybe the salary wasn’t up to par. Perhaps the vacation time didn’t start for a year after you began. You may have found during the lengthy interview process that you just weren’t feeling the company’s culture. You may have even accepted a better job offer. But is it bad to decline offers? Will this hurt your career? Not necessarily. Rejecting a job offer may actually help elevate your career. Sharpens your negotiation skillsOne of the main reasons candidates turn down job offers is due to salary discrepancies. Unfortunately, you really can’t discuss how much you’ll be paid during your first interview before any job offer was extend ed. You may have only seen a salary range from the job description or perhaps no salary was listed at all.You went on the company’s multiple interview process expecting to make a certain amount but ended up being offered much less. Now is the perfect opportunity to negotiate your salary! Negotiating your salary is something that can improve your career and forces you to know what you’re worth in your industry. Knowing how to negotiate your salary during the interview will benefit you when you’re up for a promotion and want to negotiate your raise.Improves your interview skillsTurning down a job offer opens you up to interview at other places. Regardless of the rapid expansion of technology today, interviewing is a skill that isn’t going away anytime soon. Knowing how to effectively speak with different types of employers, who all have their own unique methods, will significantly increase your confidence and make you comfortable with the process. As a bonu s, the more interviewing you do will not only make you a better interviewee with other companies but will make you a better interviewer if you’re a manager and need to recruit new talent.Leaves the door open for better opportunitiesIn today’s digital world with companies and job boards regularly posting positions online, there are always opportunities out there, even during recessions. It’s not uncommon for professionals and executives to routinely go on interviews just to get a feel for what’s out there. They may initially have no intention of accepting the job offer if extended, but just seeking better opportunities and feeling the pulse of the current job market in their industry is invaluable.Makes you a more attractive candidateThe Chronicle of Higher Education published an article that showed interest from one company can serve as a leverage point or negotiation for another company. This is especially true when you’re in a specialized field w ith a select number of qualified candidates. I once worked as an executive recruiter where there was a frenzy in search of plastic injection molding engineers. These specialists were very difficult to find, and many companies were competing with one another to try and hire them. The plastic injection molding engineers would routinely decline offers, which only made them more appealing. Talk about a specialized field with a small talent pool!Teaches you how to say â€Å"no†Learning how to say no is an often-underrated but invaluable skill. Many CEO’s and top-level executives attend leadership training sessions to learn how to strategically say â€Å"no,† which has shown to enhance their abilities to work more efficiently since they’re constantly bombarded with proposals.One thing that’s essential when declining a job offer and saying â€Å"no† is to respond quickly to the job offer and be honest and polite. People will respect your honesty be cause it requires a lot of courage and takes responsibility. Learning to say no will sharpen your focus and keep you from making unnecessary mistakes because you may have been too polite to just say â€Å"no.†In the end, if you have any doubts about a position, then it clearly wasn’t meant to be. You’ll feel better knowing you made the right decision and that your gut was telling you the offer just wasn’t right. This newfound attitude will allow you to go after the job you’ve always wanted and push you to elevate your career goals. Being decisive and not regretting your decisions are characteristics of success. Trust your judgment, and you just might be surprised where your career path will take you.About the Author: Maria Gold is currently a Content Manager/Writer for Empire Resume. She is dedicated to helping educate people with the latest career articles and job search advice. When Maria is not working, she enjoys reading and spending quality ti me with her family.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Role of Auditor in Public Sector Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Role of Auditor in Public Sector - Essay Example It can exist in the form of direct administration through tax systems; it can also be represented by publicly owned enterprises, which have more commercial freedom. Nowadays the role of audit and audit committees in public sector plays greater and greater role. Audit is the check of accountant documentation to prove its authenticity. But in more general sense audit is just a check of any phenomenon or activity by an independent expert, who is called auditor. Speaking about the statutory role of auditor in the public sector it should be said that there is an ethic codex for the auditors in public sector. And here we will refer to this codex as the brightest statutory document which singles out the main features of auditors in public sector. An ethic codex is a detailed official list of values and principles which auditors should use as ruling in their activity. There are high demands towards auditors in public sector. The behavior of an auditor must always remain above any suspicion. The wrong behavior presents all auditors in the disadvantageous light. Honesty is the basic demand of the ethic codex. Auditors must keep to the high and worthy standards of behavior in the process of work and their relations with the checking organizations. Auditors are also to support the public trust. There are recommendations as for using auditors in checking any enterprises of public sector. And any government body should choose an audit organization to maintain and fulfill the financial oversight. The system of financial control and reporting can be increased and strengthened through using an effective audit. This can also make the audit process more integral. According to Mayhew, 'auditor is an integral part of public accountability and governance. He plays a crucial role in making all financial processes and documentation integral, and also directing the system of internal control and the control of employee management.' (Mayhew, 2001) The role of an auditor depends on the size, sphere and kind of activity of the specific establishment. The main functions of the auditor in the public sector are: approving the general audit scope, financial planning, performing audit in a cost-effective manner. Risk management is also another function of the auditor. There are the three main features which should be peculiar of the auditor in order to fulfill the necessary functions in the public sector. The first of them is independence. In the public sector, the structure of entities does not separate the governing authority and oversight responsibility from the day-to-day management. For example, a public university president may be both the chief executive officer and a board member. (Hollingsworth, 1999) The auditor must be independent, and he must provide the necessary processes for supporting this independence. He is an independent expert, first of all. Communication is another trait of auditor. He must be capable